What is a geographic information system (GIS)?
In the diagram below, we see a simple geographic area containing farms and roads. We also see two database systems; one for each database type. A GIS consists of one or more database systems, a grid of geographic coordinates, and a map.
GIS’s can be used for various purposes. One popular form is data visualization for mapping complex relationships in business and science fields. It can also be used to track the spread of disease or to predict possible future effects on an area due to climate change.
How can GIS be used to integrate maps and database data with other forms of information, including aerial photographs and satellite imagery?
The first step in using GIS for database integration is to create a database table containing the features of interest. These features are often referred to as the “geographic objects” that the database will contain. To continue our example, we might create a database that contains rows with columns for recording farm name or number and road name or number, etc. This would be similar to a simple spreadsheet. To make this database useful, we need to build a table that links the geographic objects to specific locations on the map. This process is called creating a “map projection.” Our example uses projections based on the WGS84 ellipsoid and UTM zone 48N. This is a two-dimensional map projection developed by the US National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and is currently used by all modern mapping agencies. This projection was originally developed to satisfy many of the needs of mapping in the USA, but it has since been adopted as a standard worldwide.
Each GIS system provides its own way of displaying a map. Some systems go one step further and allow for the manipulation of some parameters on a map—creating a map with different colors, gradients, shapes and so on. This is not essential for our example; however this will allow us to customize the appearance of the map when we add information from another source.
The next step is to add data from another source to our database. This could be data from a survey that has been conducted on the land, aerial photographs or satellite imagery.
What are some of the benefits of using GIS for business or government planning and decision-making processes?
One benefit of using GIS for planning and decision making processes is its ability to integrate data from many different departments and agencies into a single database. This can greatly reduce the amount of time needed to draw conclusions from the available data. Another benefit is that GIS allows users to analyze relationships between geographic features and other features, such as road length and speed, land use, businesses, crime rates and demographics. “GIS has revolutionized the practice of research with respect to the incorporation of spatial data,” said Dr. Gemmill. “GIS is being used for a multitude of purposes, such as land-use planning, environmental assessment and assessing natural resources.”
A GIS allows a user to find relationships between geographic features and other features, such as roads length and speed, land use, businesses and land value. [END ARTICLES]
Today, this article and the many others like it are lacking two things: (1) What are some of the benefits of using GIS for business or government planning and decision-making processes? (2) What are some of the benefits of using GIS for business or government planning and decision-making processes? The article presents six possible benefits. But today, there is no mention of what these benefits might be. Most articles have at least one benefit listed. For example, “David A. DeLeon and Peter A. Gustavson (2004) state in their article: “GIS has revolutionized the practice of research with respect to the incorporation of spatial data.” What are some of the benefits of using GIS for business or government planning and decision-making processes?
How does GIS technology help us understand spatial relationships and patterns in data that would otherwise be difficult to discern or comprehend?”
One of the greatest benefits of GIS is that it allows users to identify patterns and trends in a wide variety of data sets. These data sets can include crime statistics, land use, total employment and unemployment numbers, among many other variables. The ability to analyze relationships between geographic features and other features helps users answer questions such as, “where are the most likely places for crime to occur near my home or business?” or “what impact will a proposed land use law have on employment in my area?” Because of the wealth of data available via GIS, users can identify trends and patterns that otherwise may have gone unnoticed.
GIS technology helps to clarify and make more understandable the complexity of modern urban environments. This technology is currently used by many industries, including government agencies, businesses and non-profit organizations. For example, it helps urban planners to analyze the various factors that shape our physical environment. And this in turn helps reduce crime, promote successful development projects and improve quality of life in towns, cities and rural areas throughout the country.
Are there any limitations to the use of GIS technology in decision-making processes?”
One limitation of using GIS in decision-making processes is that it can be difficult to determine the accuracy of a given result. For example, if a GIS user is asked to predict the number of residents who will live in an area in 10 years, it may be difficult to determine whether the prediction was accurate. This is because there are many factors at work that affect the result, and so even minor changes in the input data could lead to major changes in the predicted number. In addition, some areas where GIS is applied are very complex, and it is not easy to determine the accuracy of a given result. This is true in applications such as analyzing crime statistics or traffic patterns.
There are some other limitations of using GIS in decision-making processes. For example, if a GIS is used it must be used with a database that contains the correct data. If this is not the case, then it will not be possible to use GIS. The data also must be in the relevant form so that calculations can be done properly. The controls on the quality of input and output data are very important if accurate results are to be obtained.